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Industrial machinery equipment for lubricating oil of 11 major requirements

Release date:2017-04-26   

According to the use, industrial equipment lubricants can be divided into general industrial lube oil, special oil and special oil.
General industrial lubricants are used for machinery with no special requirements, low temperature and low load, and relatively mild working conditions. Such as machine tool transmission machinery, textile machinery, construction - road, lifting, transportation, metallurgy, mining machinery and other industrial sectors equipment. Ordinary industrial lubricants usually do not contain additives, besides lubricating ability, no special requirements to ordinary industrial lubricants, lubricating ability mainly depends on the viscosity and anti-aging performance, the latter is related to raw material quality and process.
Special lubricating oil is used to lubricate individual parts (parts, parts, machines).
Special lubricating oil is used for lubricating industrial machine tools, metal processing machine tools and other special equipment. Such as high speed machinery (grinder spindle and bearing), industrial equipment hydraulic system, gear transmission device, metal cutting machine guide rail, zang steel machine and steam turbine, compressor, etc. In addition, there are electrical insulating oil, cylinder oil, vacuum oil and drilling oil (including pneumatic drill).
1. High speed mechanical oil.
Such as rolling and sliding bearing with high speed machine tool spindle, spindle speed, the higher the less demanding oil viscosity, low load high speed spindle in hydrodynamic lubrication may occur when the boundary friction, at this time, in order to reduce the friction and wear, can live with surface active agent types of anti-friction and anti-wear additives. It is better not to have chemical active additives, because it is possible to increase corrosive wear.
2. Hydraulic oil
(1) the mineral oil without additives is similar to that of ordinary industrial lubricants. Such as hydraulic jack oil.
(2) lubricants containing anti-corrosion and anti-oxidants contain anti-foaming agent, which is widely used, but is limited to hydraulic transmission. Low resistance to wear resistance.
(3) the hydraulic system of hydraulic oil which contains anti-corrosion, anti-oxygen and anti-wear additives is widely used in industrial equipment.
(4) the hydraulic oil with good viscosity-temperature performance has the same additive as the former group of oil, and is used for the hydraulic system of program control precision machine tool.
(5) it is used for lubricating oil of hydraulic system and machine guide rail, which is similar to the third group, and adds friction additives that can stabilize the friction performance. The hydraulic system for automatic production line of metal cutting machine and other high pressure equipment can also be used as general oil of hydraulic system and guide rail. Hydraulic oil is the most important performance requirements: good lubrication and viscosity-temperature characteristics, and the compatibility of sealing material, high thermal conductivity and low density, oxygen resistance, low evaporation, corrosion resistance, resistance to emulsification and anti-foam, such as portable filter pumps used in the hydraulic oil filter.
3. Gear transfer oil.
The gear drive used in industry can be divided into gear and gear - screw. The former is a cylindrical and cylindrical gear transmission, and its conjugate gear pairs are rolled on each other without sliding, and the contact endpoint does not produce rolling friction. It is a gear helical transmission with worm, spiral bevel gear and double - curve gear transmission. The pitch circles of these transmission teeth are not only rolling over each other, but also rolling each other, resulting in a complex spiral motion. Therefore, the transmission is more likely to cause wear and bite.
The working conditions of industrial gear transmission are very different, with various additives or non-additive lubricating oil, and the viscosity is from 12mm2/S (50oC) to 52mm2/S (100oC). Helical bevel gear and hyperbola gearing need to be lubricated with an abrasion resistant lubricant. For worm gear, it mainly USES high viscosity oil with anti-friction agent. Cylindrical and conical gear transmission, according to the load and the speed of gear teeth with the use of anti-wear or unadditive lubricating oil.
When the unit load is approximately lower than the following limit value, it can be allowed to use the lubricating oil of the adding agent: the hardened and hardened gear -- 8 x 108N/m2; Unhardened gear - below 108N/m2. In the case of higher unit load, use lubricants containing antiwear. Higher loads are required to use anti-wear and antioxidant properties. For specific gear oil, the determining factor is the load, velocity and temperature of the contact position when selecting the base oil additive interaction. The latter (contact temperature) determines the possibility and condition of the interaction of various additives. Under the condition of the tank temperature, the additive should not interact with the working surface of the gear (no corrosion alone), and the reaction must occur at the contact temperature.
Worm gear transmission oil should have high anti - friction performance, so long as adding plant animal oil fatty acid to oil products can improve the performance.
4, metal cutting machine tool guideway oil, brake and clutch to prevent oil bearing, workbench, beams and some types of punch, clutch, and other devices produced during low speed mobile crawl, also can be used as hydraulic transmission oil or gear oil.
5. Turbine oil (turbine oil)
The main function of turbine oil is to lubricate and cool the bearings of various turbine units (steam, hydraulic and gas turbine, turbo pump, turbo compressor, turbofan, generator). It should be used for a long time. All kinds of turbine oil is the main performance requirements, within 60-100 oc and higher temperature has good oxidation stability, emulsifying ability, protective resistance and low foaming ability, and a decline in low flash point should not exceed 10 oc, oil should be transparent, not water and sediment, water extract should be neutral. The change of the physicochemical index is beyond the allowable scope of the regulation, and the new oil must be replaced or regenerated. Turbine (turbine oil) oil filter to solve the turbine oil process.
6. Compressor oil.
Used to lubricate the compressor parts (car, valve), and use the sealing medium of compression chamber. The oil in the cylinder of the compressor should form a stable oil film and seal the space between the friction surface (cylinder piston ring), and have enough fluidity to prevent the dry friction from escaping too much. In addition, it is not necessary to have good thermal stability and chemical stability.
Compressor oil can be divided into two types: one is piston, rotary compressor oil, the other is refrigeration compressor oil. Piston type, rotary compressor oil is used at high temperature. For most compressors, the temperature of air or gas is usually more than 170-180 oC after compression, but the outlet temperature of the piston compressor with high thermal strength exceeds 220oC. In order to ensure the safety of the compressor operation, to extend the oil change period, keep the air pressure system clean, reduce friction and energy consumption, piston and rotary compressor oil should have good thermal stability, prevent the carbon deposit, also have good corrosion resistance, resistance to emulsification, anti-foam.
The refrigeration compressor oil has a series of special requirements, the oil product and the refrigeration medium constant contact, the medium temperature and the pressure constant change. The refrigerant (ammonia and carbon dioxide) widely used in refrigerating machine and the lubricant with unadditive are not working (inert). As a result, the refrigerating machine that USES this refrigerant can use deep refined lubricating oil. This kind of oil has low enough freezing point, gentle viscosity temperature curve and good oxidation resistance. The higher the temperature, the greater the likelihood. Also consider the intersolubility of the two. In addition, the corrosion of machine parts must be controlled by refrigerant and lubricating oil mixture.
The ammonia refrigeration oil viscosity of 50 ℃ for 25 to 35 square meters/s, require high wear resistance and low solidifying point (38 ℃ to 40 ℃. Dissolved in oil, refrigerant can reduce oil viscosity, therefore, oil and the viscosity of the refrigerant mixture at 50 ℃, 3-4 ℃ x 105 n/was under pressure shall be not less than half the original lubricating oil. Refrigerant and lubricating oil (no more than 10%) should be stable and unstratified at the lowest temperature of the chiller. The lubricating oil used for refrigerator compressor is of higher stability, because it is impossible to observe the change of oil and replace it, that is, the oil product should live with the refrigerator.
7. Electrical insulating oil
Electrical insulating oil for liquid dielectric, can guarantee the electrical equipment (transformer, capacitor, cable, etc.) the insulation of the live parts and heat in running away, and be able to in the electrical switch quickly extinguished arc. Transformer oil, capacitor oil, capacitor oil and cable oil belong to this type of oil.
The most important performance of transformer oil is anti-oxidation stability, because it is used in transformers for a long time. The electric capacity of a transformer can reach dozens of tons, and the oil change often causes great loss. Oil aging results in deterioration of the insulation performance of oil products. The product of aging process is attached to the working surface of the equipment and damages the insulation effect. Therefore, the oxidation resistance of base oil is very high. The insulation performance of transformer oil mainly depends on the tangent value of dielectric loss (dielectric loss factor). No moisture and mechanical impurities are allowed in the oil to avoid dielectric properties. Liquidity to maintain the low temperature, it is necessary to have low freezing point 45 ℃ or lower (-). And in order to ensure the effective heat dissipation, transformer oil viscosity should not be too high (50 ℃ when the cap was 9.6 / s), the flash point for not less than 135-150 ℃. Transformer oil is a special oil, and no other oil can replace it. The average life span of the transformer oil is 5-10 years, and the service life of the oil switch is from a few decades to three to five years depending on the frequency of use.
The capacitor oil is used to cast and impregnate electrical and radio low - quality capacitors. For this type of product by the heaviest is dielectric properties, the volume of electricity Yin rate higher, 50 and 100 Hertz, dielectric loss Angle tangent value (dielectric loss factor) to capacitor oil oxidation stability is the most important quality index.
Cable oil is an impregnated and insulating medium in an oil-filled cable. They should have good dielectric property, namely low dielectric loss Angle tangent value and high dielectric strength. The oil with good oxidation stability can guarantee the long - term and dielectric properties of lubricants.
8. Cylinder oil
Its main function is to lubricate steam engine (ship, fixed machine, hammer, pile driver, etc.) high temperature component. Cylinder oil should be evenly distributed on the friction surface without producing carbon, so it is required to have good anti-oxygen performance at high temperature. These properties are related to chemical composition, type of raw materials and processing methods. Oil does not cause corrosion on the metal surface. Cylinder oil is divided into two types: saturated steam cylinder and superheated steam.
The use condition of the steam cylinder is relatively moderate, and the steam pressure is usually below 16 x 105N/m2 and the temperature is below 200. The main performance requirement of this kind of lube is that it is not easy to be washed away by wet steam and condensed water. In this respect the residue is better than the refined distillate. In 350-400 ℃ or higher temperature overheat cylinder has higher requirements, including the high viscosity and flash point. Cylinders can also be used for high - speed and high - load machines.
9. Vacuum oil
A working fluid used as a vacuum pump. It is characterized by narrow distillate, low volatility and good anti-oxygen performance. The refined oil can be reduced by vacuum distillation to obtain the vacuum pump oil. According to the requirement, the oil products with low saturation vapor pressure at normal temperature and very low oil can be produced, and the vacuum oil filter is often used for processing.
10. Textile oil.
Textile oil has two characteristics: first, good adhesion, to prevent the bad sealing machine oil leak, splash down to a minimum at the same time (because the oil spill will fall on the cotton yarn and fabric); Second, it is easy to wash away.
11. Pneumatic tool oil.
Drilling machine in high pressure (up to 5 x 107 n/m2), high temperature (400 ℃), high sliding speed (up to 7 m/s), and changing load, intermittent work. In (5-7) x 105 n/m2 pressure oil constantly contact with wet compress air, lubricating oil in this case to work effectively, needs to have the best viscosity, good lubricity, abrasion, scratch resistance, anti-friction), adhesion and corrosion resistance, good emulsification resistance and good thermal oxidation stability. In addition, it also requires non-toxic and odorless.

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